"I think the government has successfully proved that any seaman recruit has reasonable cause to believe that the wars in Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Iraq were illegal." - Lieutenant Commander Bob Klant (presiding judge at court martial) comments after a difficult cross examination (by the prosecution) of International Law expert Marjorie Cohn.
"He is trying to infect the military with his own philosophy of disobedience. Sailors all over the world will want to know whether this will be tolerated. Sailors want to know whether doing what he did is a good way to get out of deployment." - Prosecutor Lt. Brandon Hale.
"a stunning blow to the prosecution. This is an affirmation of every sailor's and military person's right to speak out and follow their conscience," - Defense lawyer Jeremy Warren describing the judges final sentence.
Paredes based his defense on his belief that the war in Iraq is illegal, and that he had a duty to avoid participating in it. He said that he wanted to "put the war on trial." This defense was not accepted by the judge.
However, during the sentencing portion of the hearing, the judge did allow testimony about the legality of the war, about the "reasonableness" of Paredes' opinion in that regard, and about his sincerity as a conscientious objector to war.
Paredes' lawyer, Jeremy Warren, called Prof. Marjorie Cohn as an expert witness on international law. Cohn testified that the war in Iraq is illegal because it meets neither of the two standards incorporated into the United Nations Charter. The two standards are self-defense, collective or individual, and authorization by the Security Council. The U.N. Charter has been ratified by Congress and, thus, is the "law of the land," Cohn testified. She testified further that the overwhelming preponderance of opinion among international law experts is that the war in Iraq is illegal.
During a lengthy and testy cross-examination, Cohn was repeatedly asked by the prosecutor whether it was her opinion that "any seaman recruit" could decide for themselves whether such wars as Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Iraq were illegal and, thus, have a duty not to serve in them. Cohn responded that none of those wars met either of the standards in the U.N. Charter that would confer legality upon them, and, so, were illegal. Since they were illegal under the Charter ratified by Congress, participation in them would constitute a violation of the "law of the land."
At the conclusion of Cohn's testimony, the judge, exasperated by the prosecutor's efforts, said, "I think the government has successfully proved that any seaman recruit has reasonable cause to believe that the wars in Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Iraq were illegal.
Paredes' supporters in the courtroom were astounded at the judge's remarks and left the courtroom elated. When court re-convened today, the previous day's elation had turned sober in anticipation of Paredes' sentencing. During the sentencing portion of the court martial, the prosecution had proposed 9 months confinement, maximum forfeiture of pay, reduction in rank to the lowest pay grade, and a bad conduct discharge. But when, after an hour of deliberation, the judge returned and pronounced the sentence, Paredes' supporters' joy re-emerged. According to Paredes' attorney Jeremy Warren, the sentence was an "affirmation" of the right of members of the military to speak out publicly on issues like the war in Iraq. Larry Christian, who testified on Paredes' behalf, said, "This is a huge victory. It recognizes, even if only by implication, the legitimacy of acting against an illegal war based on sincere and reasonable beliefs."
The sentences of restriction and hard labor are to run concurrently and will begin when appropriate paperwork is completed, which is expected to take up to a month. Until then, Paredes will operate on a normal schedule at the Temporary Processing Unit to which he is assigned.
Paredes currently is awaiting the NAVY's final decision on his request for Discharge based on Conscientious Objection. Despite positive recommendations from the NAVY chaplain and psychiatrist, the investigating officer recommended his request be denied. Pablo has submitted a rebutal and
is awaiting the final decision.
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Chilcot read your report. Photo taken from Euronews.
The member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, John Chilcot announced today that his country did not exhaust all peaceful options before invading Iraq in 2003.
Chilcot, chairman of the independent commission established to investigate the involvement of the UK in the Iraq War of 2003, officially The Iraq Inquiry , was responsible for drafting the report on the armed conflict promoted by the United States.
In a statement in London to publish the document, expected for seven years, he said thatin his day, the military option “was not the last option” available. He said the former British Labour minister Tony Blair presented as evidence a certain “not justified” on the possession of weapons of mass destruction by the then Iraqi president regimeSaddam Hussein .
Chilcot said Blair, prime minister from 1997 to 2007, pledged military forces before the peaceful alternatives were exhausted in Iraq. According to the document prepared by the senior adviser to the British crown official, the consequences of the invasion were underestimated although it had “explicit warnings” about the planning and the situation in Iraq it was “totally inadequate”.
Among other things, Chilcot said that the intelligence used to justify the invasion was “defective”. It also argued that Saddam Hussein posed no threat before March 2003, when the United Kingdom and the United States began armed intervention.
The author of the analysis recalled the difficult situation in which Iraq is today and mentioned the devastating bombing last weekend, in which 250 people were killed.
“More than 200 British citizens died as a result of the conflict in Iraq. Many more were injured. This has meant deep distress for many families, “lamented Chilcot. The invasion and subsequent instability in Iraq had caused, until July 2009, “the death of at least 150,000 Iraqis, and probably more, most of them civilians. More than one million people were displaced. The people of Iraq have suffered greatly, “noted Chilcot.
Download the statements of John Chilcot on the invasion of Iraq UK at hush hush pdf.
How cinema has portrayed the last large-scale war? propagandists tapes, anti-war and other Middle Eastern countries are among the highlights.
Since World War II, the US invasion in Iraq, which these days celebrates 10 years has been the war’s registered cinema, with the caveat that has been documented only in a decade with the facts, in some cases even acaeciendo.
They have made about thirty fiction films, as much of documentaries and television, and also have been busy all platforms to illustrate it: from the video recording by the soldiers themselves, blogs, videos for Internet and cellular, which has given the conflict a multiplicity of views and formats.
All this wealth from xmovies8 we choose the most representative bands of the conflict in the genre of fiction, from the war itself tapes to films that reflect upon its consequences.
Living on the edge (The Hurt Locker, 2008)
It was considered at the time of its release, as the best film about the invasion by Hollywood. He won six Oscars and showed a face of the conflict few times explored with realism: the imminence of death. Without a clear anti-war speech, Kathryn Bigelow’s film showed the brutality and alienamiento soldiers, and an enviable pace to display the vertigo of the conflict.
Conspiracy (In the Valley of Elah, 2007)
American war veteran (Tommy Lee Jones), to investigate the disappearance of his son Mike, a soldier deployed to Iraq just before returning, was away from their base and were never heard.Classical research on the disappearance promenores you question your own beliefs and military.Directed by Paul Haggis, it is one of the most painful period tapes.
Back to Hell (Home of the Brave, 2006)
2006 tape starring Samuel Jackson sobrecuatro US soldiers who are about to finish its mission in Iraq. But shortly before embarking on the trip, they are sent on a humanitarian mission last transport of drugs to a small town. The unit is ambushed and has serious losses, where those who survive are tortured. The tape shows the psychological and insertion effects in the US, in the path of the classic The best year of our lives and Coming Home, but with a much more melodramatic.
Turtles Can Fly (2004)
This award-winning Iranian film directed by Bahman Ghobadi, was one of the first non-Hollywood films that openly criticized the US invasion. The story takes place on the border between Turkey and Iraq just before the US invasion. Its protagonists are children living in that territory and survive to trade on both sides of the conflict. True to the spirit of Iranian cinema, the film is acted by children who actually live in that area, with the consequences that entails, such as mutilation, burns or blindness.
The controversial former Brian de Palma back on track with this atypical film, which revolves around the rape of an Iraqi teenager and the murder of his entire family by a group of American soldiers. Based on a real event that occurred in Mahmudiya in March 2006, the director puts at its center not only the atrocities of US soldiers, but censorship of the media Americans about the war.
Battle for Haditha
This English band did not reach the Chilean cinemas, but is probably the most critical western ribbon with the American invasion. In November 2005, in the city of Haditha, Iraq, Iraqi insurgents bombed a convoy of marines killing the officer. Blinded by anger, his platoon records every house killing all who cross his path. The result is the death of 24 people, including women and children. Director Nick Broomfield, formed in the documentary, delivers one of the most realistic approaches to conflict.
American soldier (2005)
One of the tapes more explicitly pro-US is this film by Sidney J. Furye. In 2004, during a routine tour, a patrol ambushed and trapped across enemy lines and must face the Fedayeen in Iraq and desperately fighting for their lives. The film, low budget, openly sought to encourage young people to enroll to war.
The Mark of Cain (2007)
A British army patrol is ambushed and killed their leader. Two young soldiers, prisoners of despair, looking in every house the culprits and rush events. Back in England are judged by mistreatment and torture of suspects. This British film of 2007 directed by Mark Munden is in fact a TV movie that won two Bafta awards.
The situation (2006)
Shortly after the fall of Saddam Hussein, a patrol of US soldiers launched by a bridge two young.One of them dies, but the fact unleashes a wave of violence in the country. A US periodosta which is covering the invasion, seeks to make a report and next to a iraaquí photographer, you will discover the truth of what happened. This is the first American film fiction that acclimated to the conflict.
In the spirit of exploring the National Geographic of the War of Science , the FACTS Network (Defenders food, bisphenol-A and low-calorie sweeteners. This is what the experts had to say about science in these issues and why they think these issues are so often misreported, communication through Science) of the IFIC Foundation – An expert, interactive scientific, global network health and food advocates formed to combat the rising tide of misleading advice, statistics and scare tactics – published a three – part series on the blog Food Insight War of Food Science. Each installment featured experts on food security and nutrition who share their views on three commonly misinformed topics: corrections rapid weight loss
1. Quick fixes for weight loss
Red FACTS (FACTS): How does science enters the discussion of Pastillas para perder Peso Rapido? Where it is absent?
Hollie Raynor, PhD, RD, LDN, Associate Professor and Director of Nutrition and Public Health, University of Tennessee, Knoxville: Virtually all studies of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have demonstrated success at 6 months or more, the use of a combination of diet, physical activity and behavior strategies.Such interventions are called lifestyle interventions. Produce a degree of weight loss improves health outcomes, such as prevention of type 2 diabetes Several professional organizations have used this research to provide recommendations for the treatment of obesity. However, this evidence seems to be absent in the secular media as press reports and magazines .
FACTS: To be scientifically substantiated help or affect the weight loss programs are popular among consumers?
Julie Schwartz, MS, RDN, CSSD, LD, ACSM-HFS, Coach Certificate of Health: I do not think it helps or harms. However, seeing a science – based that has been well researched against models that are sexy and weight loss “easy” plan, consumers tend to keep their emotions. I think there is a strong segment of people who are tired of trends and want lasting results, you want help to make changes that lead to lasting change in weight and to learn behaviors that lead to maintenance.
FACTS: If you will develop the perfect media coverage, scientifically based, to control weight loss, how would it be?
HR: The stories say that weight loss occurs due to the realization of a negative energy balance and weight maintenance is due to a balance between energy consumption and energy expenditure. Point.
2. Bisphenol-A (BPA)
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is used in food and beverage containers to protect food from contamination that can cause foodborne illness.
FACTS: What we know about bisphenol A and any impact on our bodies?
Henry Chin, PhD, Food Safety & Risk Communication Expert, Henry Chin & Associates: BPA is probably one of the most studied chemicals in history. There have been hundreds of studies on the potential health effects of BPA conducted over the past 30 years. These studies and almost all officially sanctioned reviews of available studies conclude that humans are not at risk by eating foods that may contain traces of BPA in some packaging materials.
FACTS: it Is safer than families avoid BPA?
HC: Since the BPA does not pose a risk, there is no valid reason for families to avoid BPA scientific reason.
FACTS: What do you think has led to all the media coverage of BPA?
HC: I do not entirely blame the media for the coverage volume on BPA. The media have a responsibility to report new information about alleged risks or health hazards. Researchers have an incentive to publish interesting results, and often these results are “interpreted” creatively to create more media coverage.
FACTS: How does science on BPA coverage?
HC: Media coverage of BPA apparently been limited to stories focusing on individual experiments with unproven conclusions and uncorroborated. There is little coverage that includes experts examining the totality of the evidence.
It is true that the science of BPA is complex, but that science stripped of its complexity, is nothing more than rhetoric and should be seen that way.
3. Low-calorie sweeteners
FACTS: What do we know about low calorie sweeteners and their impact on our body?
Robyn Flipse, MS, RDN, Communication Services Nutrition : Low calorie sweeteners can make food and drinks to taste sweet, with few or no calories compared with sugar and other caloric sweeteners. Levels do not increase blood glucose or insulin requirements and are non-cariogenic, so do not contribute to tooth decay. Besides perceived sweet taste, they have little impact on the body, as mostly pass through unchanged.
FACTS: What do we know about the safety of low-calorie sweeteners?
John Foreyt, PhD, Director, Behavioral Medicine Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine : All sweeteners low approved calories have been studied and reviewed rigorously by government and scientific bodies worldwide, before being used in food and beverages . Low – calorie sweeteners approved by the FDA, meet the same safety standards as other foods are safe for consumption, even for pregnant women and children.
FACTS: Based on the research, what families need to avoid low-calorie sweeteners?
Julie Jones, PhD, CNS, CFS, LN, distinguished academic and professor emeritus of the department of family, consumer and nutrition sciences, University St. Catherine: No. Like everything in nutrition, balance is needed. It is important to use tools such as low – calorie sweeteners along with a balanced diet, otherwise some patients see the impact of poor diet and blame the low – calorie sweeteners.
FACTS: What is the craziest statement you’ve seen on a low-calorie sweetener or low-calorie sweeteners in general?
JJ: That the low – calorie sweeteners cause weight gain, when research actually shows that low – calorie sweeteners are useful for reducing calories for those struggling with weight.
RF: It always amazes me the number of people who believe that low calorie sweeteners can cause cancer, when neither the National Cancer Institute or the American Cancer Society appoint the low calorie sweeteners as one of the dietary factors which can increase the risk of developing cancer.
FACTS: How does science in the way that low-calorie sweeteners are covered by the media and online?
JJ: I would like the best fit science. Those who have the ‘microphone’ earn by using emotion. Many consumers do not understand that science can change, because methods change. I think we have to present studies and reviews as the “Non – Caloric Sweeteners and Obesity” John Fernstrom , showing how low calorie sweeteners are useful for people with diabetes and those struggling to reduce calories.
RF: The news agencies must compete for our attention and this needs to drive for sometimes irresponsible way the news is reported. Most people do not read the entire article under the heading or the current study and important details are lost. I spend more of my time correcting misinformation that people read in the news about low calorie sweeteners, what really happened educating them about nutrition and health. It’s a full time job!
For more ideas on experts and these topics, visit the ” War on Food Science ” Food Insight Blog.
Also, take a look at our post ” Warriors for Science “!